Hadramout governorate lies in the eastern part of Yemen between Al-Mahra governorate from east and Shabwa governorate from west and extends north in side Al-Ruba Al khali desert, the southern coasts overlook the Arab sea, Al-Mukalla the capital is 777km from Sana’a across Marib-Attaq-Al-Mukalla paved road.
Hadramout governorate comprises different topography distributed between coastal plains containing beautiful shores on the Arab Sea, mountains and hills of heights reaching 2000 m above sea level, large areas of Al-Ruba Al-khali desert, with many valleys, the largest Hadramout valley which is supplied by many branch valleys, it is the longest valley and most fertile in the Arab peninsula since it is 160km long and pours in Sihout on the Arab sea at Al-Mohra governorate.
Hot tropical climate in Hadramout, temperature reaches 40c in summer in the interior areas, where continental dry climate prevails, temperature reaches 36c in the coastal areas, due to seasonal winds saturated with moisture, the temperature in winter tends to be moderate in the coastal areas, 20-24 co and 17-20 co in the interior areas.
Hadramout governorate had been presented in the classic books as the land of (Ahqaf), the historians reported that Amir Bin Qahtan was the first to land in Ahqaf after “A’ad” and if he attended in a war, he killed much, then they said if he reported there - “death.., is coming: then it was his title, the area was then named accordingly.
Hadramout has a deep - rooted past and history distinguished with continuity through the different historic phases until present. The archeological researches made in Hadramout valley indicate that south peninsula witnessed human activity in the first stone ages, Hadramout witnessed boom of one of the old Yemen kingdoms, Hadramout kingdom which flourished a the start of the first millennium B. C.
Many ancient cities had flourished there, and the goddess temples “The Moon” spread out and witnessed development in arts, architecture, and development in irrigation systems, dams, political systems, legislation, laws and reached a high level of progress in such aspects.
Hadramout is considered of the main roots of Yemen civilization rich with deep rooted historic antiquities, architecture in particular, represented in embracing the oldest highest buildings which are still standing, the remains indicate the monumental ruins of cities, temples and prophets graves (Hud, Saleh) peace be upon them, there to the remains of the ancient Yemen kingdoms spreading all over Hadramout and which remain a live witness of the genius Yemeni human.
Hadramout takes its deep rooted ness from the past, and still look to future as an important governorate, including archeological, historic, tourist and economic cities and sites on the coastal strip, Islands and on the banks of the fertile Hadramout valley as:
Mukalla City: ...up...
It is the capital, the largest and most important city on the coastal strip located on the Arab sea coast, Mukalla mount embraces the city and provide it with natural protection from behind, this advantage was useful in past time, Mukalla was known as khisa or Bandar Ya’qoub, the general feature of this city as other coastal cities in general, it is distinguished that all its features are still existing and were not demolished or deformed, and of Yemen commercial ports, it contains the most fishing centers, and a well known commercial market, fish industry, the most important features are the sultan palace (Ma’in palace)
built by Omar bin Awad Al-Qu’aity, the museum occupies part of it, Al-Ghuweizy Castle which receive the visitor at the entrance of Mukalla city, as an important feature of the city, there to public markets and Khalaf beautiful coasts.
Ghil Bawazir: ...up...
Located 35 km east of Mukalla, a fertile cultivated area, water runs through this area, cultivated with palm trees Hinna, coconut, in addition to tobacco, “Ghill tobacco” is considered the best quality, it contains Al- Ghil tourist rest house which was in the past a rest house for Sultan Al-Qu’eity.
Al Houmah Hot Spa: ...up...
Located near Ghil Bawazir, it supplies Al-Ghil farms with irrigation water, a deep hole in rocky land containing a water spring 12 m deep and 30 m diameter, it is a natural hole formed according to narration as a result of a falling star in the area, two channels engraved, the first channel about 5km long, the second 2km, excavation of the two channels in such rocky land is a great human effort.
Al- Shehir city: ...up...
Known with other names “Samoun” and “Al Souq”, located 62km east of Mukalla, it is an ancient city, it was a commercial center for exporting olibonum and dates, the people there are known with textile industry of some traditional dresses, jewelry, boats building, dyeing , al-Shahar was one of the Arabs known markets in the area of the Arab known markets.
Al-Shahar is divided today with the old part and the new part, the old part of the city is built of bricks, distinguished with a certain architecture, it has two gates, one called (Bab Al Khour) and the other (Bab Al’eidrous), the ancient land marks as the castles and the old wall, the new part in the new quarters, stone is used as a building material in its houses, it is very beautiful due to the white color of the stones.
Hot Spas: ...up...
The coast of Hadramout is known with many hot spas and springs in many areas, properties differ from place to place. People come from remote and close areas seeking cure from diseases as dermatitis, rheumatism digestive system diseases, fatness, diabetes, some springs are strong and used for cultivation, such as, Suwaibir, 47 km from Shehir and close from Suwaibir.
- Tobalah: The most ample and largest in member. It is 10km from Shahar.
- Al- Hami: 17 km from Al-Shakhar city.
- Shanna coast: 120km east of Mukalla, considered of the beautiful coasts in Yemen and distinguished with turtles multiplication in the season of propagation.
Hadramout valley: A 322 km paved road links Mukallah city with Hadramout valley and the cities and villages spreading on its banks to si’oun city, the capital of the valley. Hadramout valley is considered the longest in the Arab peninsula, 160km long extends to Thamoud, then the valley water pour in Sehout through Masila valley 12 km wide. In some areas and 700 m in other areas, it is highly fertile, cultivated with palm trees and types of legumes, tobaco, Hinna, it is the largest dates producing area, Bananas, papyas is also planted, lemon and narjil and others. Hadramout valley is considered of the highest valleys in technology related to water courses drainage, as ducts water drainage is made within hours, which is not usual in many large valleys in Yemen where water courses continue running for long time.
Si’oun city: ...up...
Located 322km from Mukalla, the largest city in Hadramout valley, the houses surrounded with green carpet of large gardens, palm trees woods. It is the administrative capital of the valley since the 15th century, it has been mentioned in the ancient reference inscriptions, the classical historians noted that it was a great city, and residence for Hadramout, Himiar and Kinda. Land marks as sultan Huge palace (Al Katheir sultan palace) known at present as the revolution palace, consisting of five floors including tens of rooms and utilities, it has been transformed to a museum of antiquities and a museum of customs. (1) traditions and handicrafts. (2) Al- Ghalas castle, the complex of handicrafts such as woodworks, poultry industries, ceramics, leather handicrafts etc. The important land marks in Si’oun: The market where many handicrafts and traditional industries are shown.
The Grave of the Immigrant Ahmad bin Issa: “a holy man
The grave of Almohajir Ahmad Bin Issa is a tourist landmark, for being distinguished with architectural pattern as a tomb located in a high place of the mountain and the style of the mosque building located at the foot of the mountain and the paved road linking between the tomb and the mosque in its zigzag form and the white paint raise the features of the tomb and the mosque, the tomb dates to the 10th century and is located 10km east of si’oun city.
Tareem City: ...up...
One of the well - known historic ancient Hadramout valley cities until now. It is Located 35 K.M North South of Sioun city, linked with asphalt road. ft was the capital of Kinda kings, them capital to hadramout Valley before Sioun. It was mentioned in the ancient Yemeni sculptures
At the Islamic era it because the center for science and culture, still it has the known Ribat “ Treem Ribat “ performing it’ s scientific and religious functions.
Tareem city is full of Yemeni architectural art treasures represented by its mosques, wonderful palaces fenced by palm trees. One of its important cites is AL- Mehdar mosque and minaret which was established on 1915 A.C. Its height is 125 feet. Also, the ancient castles near the city like” Al Najeer” castle, 6 Km east of Treem, and “AL Orr” castle near Al- Soum village about 15 Km east Treem.
The second largest library in Yemen exist in Treem, and contains more than five thousand manuscripts.
A beautiful village located 8 Km east of Treem, it dates to the 16th century,it has a certain style of domes and religious tombs, it is the seven domes known in Einat, it comprises a number of houses of beautiful architectire.
The Tomb of Prophet Hud “ Peace be upon him” ...up...
Hadramout is a land of prophets “peace be upon them” . It is a holy land, since it comprises a number of prophets tombs as the tomb of prophet Saleh and Hanthalah bin Safwan “the prophet of Ashab Alruss” and the tomb of prophet Hud which is the most important.
The tomb of prophet Hud is located 90Km east of Tureim city, it is on a hill above sea level with a dome date to 1673 and called A1-Naqa, it is linked with the village by a zigzag road paved by stone and painted like the dome with white color which adds beauty to the architectural style, the tomb of prophet Hud is an import tourist place since pre Islam, during visit days which last for one week a market is held as of the 6th day of Sha’ aban of each year.
Bi’r Barhout: ...up...
It is a cave located at 300 ft high, and 10Km south of prophet Hud tomb, many legends are narrated about it from the pre-Islam time until now.
Seasonal Religious visits:
Hadramout comprises a number of known holy men, distributed in several areas of Hadramout, they have high spiritual position in the hearts of the people, expressed through annual collective visits associated with relgious appeals and songs accompanied with music, seasonal markets coincide with such visits of pleasures associated with the such visits are:
-Al sit visit: at: “Sha’ab Al Nour” And “Al-Wasat” villahes, north Al-Shahr city, starting from 12 - 19 of Muharram of each Hihra year.
Al Houl visit: visit to the tomb of the Ethiopian scholar,
starting from 17 - 20 Rabi 11 of each Hijra year.
Al- Mash had visit: the tomb of Ali bin Hasan Al-Attas, the visit starts on 12 Rabi’I of each Hijra year.
Shibam Hudramout city: ...up...
Shabam is one of the most important cities in Hudramout valley, it dates to the third century B.C., located at the middle of Hudramout valley on ahill 30m high above the valley level, it is located 19km from Si’oun on the paved road leading to Mukalla. Shibam city has been mentioned in the reference inscriptions, the houses form a firmly built castle, rise to 8 floors, built of clay “bricks”, it had been known in several names:
Al-Safra, Alia, Al-Dumna, Hudramout city, Al-Souq, because it was before as an Arab market in the Arab peninsula, within the known Arab markets. Many European travelers visited Shibam city and called it the desert Manhatin “and skyscrapers city”.
Shibam is considered of the most beautiful historic Yemeni cities after ancient Sana’ a. It is considered of the world human heritage cities, UNESCO announced an international campaign to protect it in 1984, the land marks are the wall, Haron Al Rashid mosque and the current city constructed before more than five hundred years, it is considered an architectural rarity which could not be repeated, therefore it worths to be of the world wonders in location as a gem in the middle of Hundramout valley, on a high hill, seems to the observer as a castle in a deep rooted glory of a valley which still possess properties which make it of the most tourists, architectural and historic Yemeni areas.
Al- Qutn city:
The second largest city in Wadi Hadramout after Si’oun, it is located 20km west of Shibam, it was the base of sultan Qu’ aiti in wars against sultan Al Kutheiri during the dispute between the authorities to expand the areas of influence in the valley, it lasted until the end of the first half of this century, Al-Qutn is a beautiful city, with buildings of bricks mixed with straw, it is the
pattern prevalent in cities and villages of Hudramout valley, the most important landmarks Al-Qu’aiti castle, where seasonal commercial market is held as of 15 Jamada II of each Hijra year and cast for one week.
on of the significant archeological places in Hadramout valley, located at the northern entrance of Do’an valley, 94km from Si’oun Ribon dates to the beginning of the first millenium B. C., archeological excavations had been made there, remains of ancient temples and parts of the ancient city, and an old irrigation network which is considered a good model for drainage of storm water in Hadramout, some antiquities shown currently at si’oun museum were discovered at this site.
Do’an Valley: ...up...
Branch valleys of Hadramout valley:
Do’an valley, Em valley, Amad valley.. etc. Do’an valley is the most important, as many villages spread on the road leading to it, some are models of architecture in Yemen, as Al-Hajrin unique village, Do’an valley is known with production of the Do’ ani honey which is considered the most expensive type of honey in the world, the beautiful villages on the valley banks:
- Al- Hajrin village:
(Hajrin means city in the ancient Yemeni language), Hajrin is one of the most beautiful Yemenis cities, and the best in Hadramout valley in particular, located on the corner of one of the curves in the valley, it is divided into two adjacent sections on the sides of the curve and overlooks a wood of palm trees, it is the most ancient village in Hadramout valley.
Where the temple of Sheikh Sa’eed bin Issa Al-Amoudi is visited in the last week of Rajab of each Hijra year, it is 126km west of Si’oun.
located 127 km south of Si’oun, where the temple of Sheikhan bin Ahmad is visited from 8-12 Rabi II of each Hijra year.
located 142 km west of Si’oun, where the temple of Bajamal is visited from 18-22 of Dhul- Hijah of each Hijra year.
located 142 km west of Si’oun, where the temple of Bajamal is visited from 18-22 of Dhul- Hijah of each Hijra year
located 152 Km west of Sioun.
It is asite for holy visits of Banjah tomb from 14 - 16 Rajab. every Hejrah year.
located 157km west of Si’oun which was the main center of the ancient Yemeni caravans route between the cost and the valley.
located 153 km west of Si’oun and of the beautiful villages in the valley.
“Ribat Ba’ashan”, located in the tale of Do’an valley on the right bank.
Hureidha city located on the entrance of Amad valley and 100km west of Si’oun, built on the ruins of Madab city, of the ancient Hadramout kingdom, it is now the center of Do’an directorate, remains of goddess temple “seen” The moon, the main goddess in the ancient Hadra.mout kingdom.
It was a branch route for the caravans loaded with Laban “chewing gum” starting from Si’oun through Al Ibar route, passing through churches route up to khirbat sand, the last Saba’i station, on the Al Bakhour route, from which camels caravans are resumed through the cities and stations north towards Gaza port on the Mediterranean There was
another route for the camels caravans loaded with Loban starting from Si’oun through the cities and Qatbania stations then the cities and Saba’i stations, then to Ma’in stations.
Today there are regular tourist tours from Hadramout valley through Al’ibar area, up to Marib city and other tours starting from Hudramout valley passing through Shawa ancient city, then through Ramlat Al-Saba’tin up to the end of Ma’rib, it is considered of the most wondering tourist routes.